The gradient at the maximum and minimum point is 0. Thus, to find maximum and minimum, these are the steps required.

Step 1: If you need to find maximum or minimum value of V, you first need an equation involving V.

Step 2: Differentiate the equation, to find e.g. dV/dx.

Step 3: Equate dV/dx to 0, and find x.

Step 4: Substitute x into equation of V (from step 1) to find the stationary value of V.

Step 5: To determine maximum or minimum, differentiate dV/dx to find d^{2}V/dx

^{2}. Substitute in x from step 4.

If d

^{2}V/dx

^{2}> 0, V is minimum.

If d

^{2}V/dx^{2 }< 0, V is maximum.
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